Incident Response Service
What is Comsec’s Incident response?
How do we define an attack?
The Execution Chain- When performing a cyber-attack, the attacker follows a structured set of actions. One of
the models that describe this set of actions is the execution chain. By defining each attack stage, Comsec’s
response team is able to find indications of compromise (IOCs) that were the source of the incident.
Reconnaissance – at this stage, the attacker collects information about the targeted organization and its assets.
For example, the attacker tries to obtain information about the structure of the targeted organization, its technology
stack, and the organization's security measures. To achieve the goals of this stage, the attacker can use
passive reconnaissance and active reconnaissance.
“Weaponize” – at this stage, the attacker uses the information obtained during the reconnaissance stage to determine how the attack should be performed. The attacker chooses the exploit, the payload and the method
of delivering the exploit and the payload to the targeted organization.
Delivery – at this stage, the attacker delivers the exploit to the targeted organization. Means of delivery usually
include spam email that contains infected attachments or links to external malicious resources. The attackers may also use other means to trick organization’s employees into visiting malicious or previously compromised web resources.
Exploitation – at this stage, the exploit takes advantage of the discovered vulnerabilities and delivers the payload.
Persistence – at this stage, the payload installs itself, and tries to hide its activity to avoid detection or deletion.
Typically, the payload will try to install itself in such a way as to keep itself operable and undetected even if the vulnerability used by the exploit is found and fixed.
C&C – at this stage, the payload waits for incoming commands from the attacker. The most common way of receiving the commands is by establishing a connection to the command and control server (or C&C server) within the targeted organization's network (The C&C server is controlled by the attacker). Once the connection is established, the attacker can send commands to the payload and take actions to achieve objectives.
Further Actions – at this stage, the attacker uses the payload and other software that was downloaded in the
course of the attack to achieve the goals of the attack. Once the attacker compromises one of the organization's
assets, he or she will try to steal, change, or destroy data available on the compromised asset.
Our Response Methodology
The response team is following a well-defined methodology used by large vendors and research institutions
around the world, including SANS. By following the next steps, the response team handles the incident:
Identify – The Identification process is the actual opening shot of the IR process. During this phase, the team
classifies the indications of compromise (IOCs) within the network and moves to the containment phase, after
firm conclusions have been made.
Contain – Once the team knows what incident type they are dealing with, the next move is to contain it. The
key is to limit the scope and magnitude of the issue at hand. To do that, the response team has to understand in
what stage of the attack they are dealing at that point of time (refer to the execution chain below).
Eradicate – Eradication is the process of actually getting rid of the threat in the system or network. This step
should only take place after all external and internal patches are completed.
Recover – at this stage, the team returns the organization to normalcy by restoring services and performing
validations that the threat no longer exists.
Lessons Learned (Aftermath) – as the incident was resolved, the response team conducts the aftermath session,
which is crucial to improving an organization’s security posture and readiness to face security incidents in